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Symposium on Muscle injuries

ESSKA Congress 2006 Innsbruck SPORTS COMMITTEE

Muscle injuries are one of the most common injuries seen after sports activity. The incidence varies between 10% and 55% of all sustained injuries.
Possible risk factors for muscle injuries are age, a recent or a past injury of the same muscle, low flexibility, and others.
Most injuries occur sudden after an extensive tensile force that leads to an overstraining of the myofibers andconsequently to a rupture near themusculo-tendinous junction.
More injuries are seen during matches compared to training sessions. A muscle contusion occurs when the muscle is hit by a direct blow common in contact sports.
Lacerations are rare reasons for muscle injuries in the athletic population.

The current clinical classification is based on the clinical impairment.

1 DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: pain, swelling, and loss of strength and ROM after eccentric exercise, increase in intensity during first 24 h after exercise, peak intensity after 24 to 72 h
2 Mild (first-degree) strain/contusion : tear of only a few muscle fibers, minor swelling and discomfort, no or only minimal loss of strength and restriction of the movements.
3 Moderate (2nd-degree) strain/contusion: greater damage of the muscle, clear loss in function (ability to contract)
4 Severe (third-degree) strain/contusion: a tear extending across the entire cross section , virtually complete loss of muscle function



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